“Songs of the Saints” Program Notes – Solis Camerata

Songs of the Saints 2014-1

November 6, 2014, 7:00 p.m.

Xavier Chapel of our Lady:
4710 North 5th Street,
Phoenix, Arizona 85012

Tickets: http://www.eventbrite.com/e/songs-of-the-saints-tickets-13613294731?aff=eac2

Ave Generosa
St. Hildegard Von Bingen (and St. Mary)
Hildegard Von Bingen (c. 1098 – 1179) is a significant figure in music and Church history. Hildegard suffered from what scholars believe were intense migraines from the age of three. The migraines brought on luminous visions that she believed were from God. At the age of 43, she began to write down these visions. With the help of male scribes who could read and write, she was able to document treatises on natural science, medicine, healing and spirituality. Her visions and treatises, originally discouraged by the Catholic Church, eventually became accepted and admired due to her distinguished holy wisdom. Hildegard received veneration during her life and after her death, but it was not until May 2012 that Pope Benedict XVI declared her a saint and, in October 2012, named her a Doctor of the Church.

She is one of the few known women medieval composers, a champion of women, their spirituality and strengths in society. Although she did not question the role of women, she was outspoken in the presence of clergymen and nobility. Her long list of appointments includes as the Abbess at the Benedictine monastery of St. Disibod in Germany. She founded two convents despite intense Church opposition. When Hildegard founded the first convent, she was forbidden to use the Church-sanctioned liturgy. Instead, she composed her own music, developing her own musical style. Although she did not have a formal music education, her exposure to music of the Church inspired her to develop her own system.

Her music is nothing like existing 12th century chant. Instead, we see monophonic writing with extraordinary wide ranges, unheard-of ascending intervals of a fifth, soaring melodies, highly melismatic melodies and alternating soloists and choir. Her text directly pairs with the melodic action in the music, implying drama and narrative, which was a rarity in 12th century compositions. Because she did not receive formal music training, she did not make use of the medieval neumatic system of notation, therefore her scores look different from those of her contemporaries. Today when we perform her music, the rhythmic durations are up to interpretation by the performer. Hildegard enthusiasts celebrate her music, which much of the body of repertoire honors the mysticism and reverence for the Virgin Mary, such as the piece on tonight’s program, “Ave Generosa.”

Salve, Sancte Pater Patriae
Guillaume Dufay (St. Peter or St. Francis of Assisi)
This hymn, traditionally attributed to St. Francis, literally translated (Sancte Pater) could be for the Holy Father, or specifically for St. Peter. St. Peter, known in the bible originally as Simon the apostle, received the name Peter when Christ said: “And I say to thee: That thou art Peter, and upon this rock I will build my church.” As the rock-like foundation, Peter became the first leader of the apostles as well as the head of the larger community who believed in Christ. He traveled to far lands proclaiming the gospel, but died as a martyr for his faith by crucifixion on an upside down cross. He was the first pope of the Catholic Church and is the patron saint of Fishermen and workers.

Guillaume Dufay (c. 1397 – 1474) had a broad spectrum of talents. In addition to his activities as a composer, he labored as a doctor of Canon Law, regularly participating in ecclesiastical events as a holder of various prebends. A wealthy, cosmopolitan, and powerful man living in the area of Cambrai (Northern France), his correspondence with contemporary composers, such as Binchoi and Ockeghem furthered his compositional technique. Much of his output reflected his dedication his canonic duties, as it furthered the larger role that liturgical polyphony played in the Church. His melodies, harmonies and plainchant compositions are an area of distinction, as well as his continued development of the iso-rhythmic technique, an older style that he perfected. The motet for this program, “Salve, Sancte Pater Patriae,” displays the iso-rhythmic aspects of medieval rhythm. The rhythm and melody repeats, and those repetitions shift over time. Each voice has its own independent line, but placed in counterpoint to the other voices, which in turn have their own repetition. Some voices have elongated and augmented rhythms, while other voices have smaller and faster diminutive rhythms. The resulting sonic structure sounds to the modern ear as if it is syncopated, and quite dissonant. However, what sounds archaic and alien to us now, was new and innovative for its time.

Missa Pange Lingua, Kyrie
Josquin des Prez ( St. Thomas Aquinas)
At the tender age of five, St. Thomas Aquinas’ (c. 1225–1274) parents gave him to the Benedictine monastery at Monte Cassino with the expectation that he would choose the life of an abbot. When Thomas reached the age of nineteen, he chose a different path against his Italian family’s wishes, and took up the Dominican habit. Shortly after, he began his career as a teacher and writer. That work later became the foundation of his faith and led to his renown as the preeminent teacher of Theology and Philosophy in the Church. His legacy lies within his writings where his main themes outline the natural order, human knowledge of the divine, the relationship between faith and reason, and the proof of God’s existence. He is the patron saint of students, schools, colleges and universities.

Josquin des Prez (c. 1450/1455 – 1521) was not a composer by trade, but rather an aristocrat who ‘dabbled’ in music. In the 15th century, aristocrats trained musicians and poets. However, it was not acceptable to brag about one’s talent as a musician, but rather be ‘asked’ – if not ‘pleaded’ – by others to ‘favor’ them with a composition. Josquin acquiesced to that ‘favor’ so often, that he is now considered a central figure in the high Renaissance and was lauded and praised during his day for his mastery of the technique. During this period, composers were unencumbered by the medieval formulaic methods of the text or rhythm, and did not have to rely upon a pre-existing melody (cantus firmus). It was a time of inventive creativity and an opening of new expressive ideas. Therefore, Josquin was able to compose freely, creating his own musical form.
Josquin’s “Missa Pange Lingua” came from a contemporary source of inspiration, the well-known hymn of the same name by St. Thomas Aquinas. Josquin set the tune as the basic melodic structure of the entire mass. As in previous compositions, Josquin turns to paraphrasing and imitation as the basis of his technique. The opening and closing Kyrie sections display imitative counterpoint defined rhythmically and melodically where each new vocal line conveys a new point of imitation. The concept of tact (or pulse) is clear in the writing of these two sections. In the middle Christe section, each new line of text conveys a new point of imitation. Some imitative motives occur in duetted pairings (the same idea which led later to antiphonal choirs). Yet, other motives trail each other with ‘question and answer’ canons. The Renaissance melodic method of horizontal lines in independent voices, combined with long chains of interlocking motives paved a path for exquisite overlapping phrases. The listener hears tension and resolution, and the long aching melodies that we have come to associate with Renaissance writing. Josquin’s genius is not only in his compelling melodies and in imitative structures, but also that he displayed a strong relationship between the text and music. This technique laid the groundwork for the Renaissance maxim: “Music is not the servant, but the mistress of the words.”

Ask Anything
Joshua Ian Elder (St. Thomas Aquinas)
*Commissioned for “Songs of the Saints” by Catholic Phoenix

I have a deep regard for the mystic poets – their poems cause us to ponder and meditate; never offering answers, but always leading to more questions, they allow us to unravel for ourselves the Divine Mystery. So, when I happened upon “Ask Anything,” I knew immediately that I would set the text to music. The poem is a beautiful reminder that we can come before God with all of our questions, doubts and fears, and that when we grapple with our issues before God, we will be rewarded by a deeper understanding of God’s nature and our own. – Notes by Joshua Ian Elder

Beatus Franciscus
Jerónimo de Aliseda (St. Francis of Assisi)
St. Francis of Assisi (c. 1181 – 1226), founder of the Franciscan order, came from the least likely background to live a life dedicated to the Church. His mother named him Giovanni after John the Baptist, but his father returned after a time in France and refused to name his son after a Christian figure. His father, a French merchant, renamed him Francesco after his own love of France. Francis lived a life of luxury and wealth, and had a reputation as a friendly and well-loved child and a natural leader. However, he tended to indulge himself in alcohol, fine food, friends, and women. As a grown man, he was much like his father, in his love for France, keen sense of adventure, business acumen, and excitement at the prospect of joining a crusade. He answered the call for knights in a war against the nearby town of Perugia. However, the war ended poorly and Francis landed in prison, suffering both physically and mentally. There he had the first of several visions from God. God told him to return home, repair the Church and live a life of poverty. A ransom from his father was accepted, but when Francis returned home, he was a different man. His transformation to man of God was not immediate, yet over time Francis lost his desire for an indulgent life. Instead, he disposed of all his possessions, devoted himself to solitude, prayer, and helping the poor. A naturally joyful man, Francis learned that he did not need possessions, wealth, or glory to be happy and at peace, but rather to be in the service of God. An important sojourn of St. Francis’ life occurred when he followed Christ’s journey through forty days of fasting and prayer. During his fast, an angel brought him a vision and at the angel’s adjourn, St. Francis became the first person to receive the stigmata, wounds similar to Christ’s wounds on the Cross.

Scholars know little about the life and works of Jerónimo de Aliseda (c. 1548 – 1591) except that he was a composer working at the Toledo Cathedral in Spain. This motet about St. Francis comes from the Toledo Polyphonic Choirbooks, a large collection of illuminated, musical liturgical sources from the Toledo Cathedral between 15th and 19th centuries. The atlas-sized book, only discovered in 2002, unearthed 170 previously lost Masses, motets and plainchants intended for liturgical functions. Although scholars do not have a large body of historical information about the piece “Beatus Franciscus,” it is clear that the reverence for St. Francis, his life and sacrifice was a topic this Spanish composer still found compelling and inspiring three hundred years after the saint’s death.

Nos Qui Sumus
Orlando di Lasso (St. Nicholas)
This 3rd century saint is the real person behind the Santa Claus story. Far from the legendary home at the North Pole, Nicholas was born in the city of Patera, on the southern coast of modern Turkey. Nicholas dedicated his life to serving the God at a young age. His parents died, leaving him a significant inheritance, which he gave to the needy, sick, and poor. He became Bishop of Myra and his paved his legacy through his generosity to those in poverty, needy children, and sailors at sea. Many stories about this Saint have been passed down, some about his kind deeds during his life and others about the many miracles which occurred through beseeching prayers to St. Nicholas after his death. One of the most famous stories led to a tradition we celebrate during the Christmas holiday today. It tells of a poor man with three daughters but no money for a dowry to prevent their being sold into slavery. On three different occasions, an anonymous person threw a bag of gold into the house through an open window giving the father money for each of the daughters’ dowries. The stories say the bag landed in stockings or shoes left beside the fire. Some variations of the story describe the contents of the bags from St. Nicholas as either three gold balls, or three oranges. Today we honor St. Nicholas, the gift giver, by leaving a stocking or shoes out for him to fill, whereby he secretly enters the house through an open window, or chimney.

Originally from Belgium, Orlando di Lasso (c. 1532 – 1594) began as a nine year old chorister soprano at St. Nicholas Cathedral choir. His famous vocal talent caused him to suffer kidnapping on three occasions, stolen away to a new cathedral. He spent many years in Italy working at the Gonzaga court in Mantua and studied singing and composition from Italian masters. After working in Italy for the Medicis and as chorus master at the Basilica of San Giovanni di Laterano (St. John Lateran), and extended travel to study music all over Europe, he returned to the Belgium. Eventually he settled in Bavaria, and Lasso received the appointment of Kapellmeister at the ducal court in Munich, Bavaria. Considered one of the Renaissance’s great composers, Lasso (or Lassus) was an authoritative writer of all genres and techniques. His music explores more chromatic and intrepid harmonies than most of his contemporaries, save perhaps Don Carlo Gesualdo. The prose for “Nos Qui Sumus” comes from the liturgical sequence for St. Nicholas’s feast day, remarking on shipwreck, despair, and rescue of sailors. The St. Nicholas liturgical sequence, attributed to Adam of St. Victor, was a popular form during the 14th century and would have been included before the gospel during medieval worship. It was only after 1570, with the introduction of the Tridentine Missal that Pope St. Pius V drastically reduced the number of sequences in the Roman Rite.

Ave Maria
Franz Biebl (St. Mary, Mary the Blessed Virgin)
St. Mary, the Blessed Virgin, is the Mother of God and wife of St. Joseph. Mary’s life is exalted and celebrated through multiple feast days and holidays across multiple Christian denominations. In life, she became the mother of Jesus Christ, saved her son from the grasp of King Herod, and raised him with her husband Joseph. Mary was present during Jesus’ first documented miracle at the wedding in Cana and she was present at his Crucifixion. In death, Mary’s body rose to heaven as celebrated in the Feast of Assumption. She is traditionally known as the first disciple and the preeminent witness to Christ. As such, she leads us to Christ and gives hope, love, nourishment, and comfort, standing by our side from birth until death. St. Mary’s legend and many miracles that occurred on her behalf led to the cult of the Virgin Mary in the Middle ages, emphasizing the relationship between her and the holy child. A popular topic for composers since the Middle Ages, thousands of choral works exist in her name. Some familiar works about the Virgin Mary are: Magnificat, Ave Marie Stella, Ave Dulcissima Maria, Assumpta est Maria, Ave Virgo Gloriosa, Ave virgo Sanctissima, Beata es Virgo Maria, Maria Matrem Virgine, and the most famous Ave Maria.

The “Ave Maria” on this program is a contemporary composition by Franz Biebl (c. 1906 – 2001) from Bavaria, Germany. A devout Catholic, Biebl served as choirmaster at St. Maria in Munich and then later taught theory and voice professor at the Mozarteum Academy in Salzburg, Austria. His most famous work, Ave Maria, quickly became popular after the American choral director, Thomas A. Sokol of the Cornell University Glee Club, came across the score music while on a concert tour in Germany. After his introduction of the work in the US, it became a staple of men’s professional choral group, Chanticleer, reaching the status of a choral “hit” after their first recording. The text comes from the ancient Angelus prayer, which is recited at three times during the day accompanied by the ringing of a bell. Scholars believe the Angelus stems from the 11th century tradition of saying three Hail Marys during the daily bell, which Pope Gregory IX ordered rung to pray for the Crusades.

Love’s Living Flame
Kira Zeeman Rugen (St. John of the Cross)
*Commissioned for “Songs of the Saints” by Catholic Phoenix

As a child, St. John of the Cross (c. 1542 – 1591) lived a life of poverty, hunger, and sacrifice, after his father died and left his family destitute. St. John of the Cross joined the Carmelite order where St. Teresa of Avila enlisted him to help establish a monastery, which would return the order to a life of prayer. Carmelite dissenters of the renewed directive kidnapped St. John of the Cross, locked him in a cell for nine months, where they beat, and starved him. During his this period of suffering, St. John of the Cross had heavenly visions, and he wrote down several works of exquisite poetry based on those visions. These poems, described as mystic poems, deal with the perpetual relationship between man’s soul and God. St. John of the Cross wrote that the soul must lose all earthly attachments before it can be united with God. Cardinal Wisemen (first Archbishop of Westminster, b. 1802) said of this journey, “St. John of the Cross gives us clearly the results of his own experience in himself and others. He presents you with a portrait, not with a fancy picture. He represents the ideal of one who has passed, as he had done, through the career of the spiritual life, through its struggles and its victories.”

In the composition “Love’s Living Flame” (Poetry title: Living Flame of Love), Kira Rugen chose to set the text both from the perspective of St. John of the Cross, during his imprisonment and his intimate struggle to find God’s light, and also in relation to the divine yet turbulent relationship between all humans and God. In this poem, St. John of the Cross emerges from the “Dark Night of the Soul,” where he experienced the absence of God’s light. He now feels of God’s presence, but it is not yet a complete reunion, and St. John finds the relationship is more painful than it is peaceful. Yet, St. John seeks more understanding, climbing higher where he attempts to partake of the Divine Nature. Instead of exaltation, he perceives the pain as a part of his cleansing to fully receive the glory and the light of God. So too in our lives do humans seek the love of God, but like Job and St. John of the Cross, in order to understand the fullness of his glory and mercy, we must first be stripped of ego, earthly materials and honor to find ourselves humbled and in need of His grace. Kira Rugen’s composition uses harmonies, colors and rhythm that present the perpetual human questioning of God’s absence, the need for his love, and the simultaneously mystifying and clarifying nature of God’s answers.

St. Crucis Mass
Josef Rheinberger   (The Holy Cross)
Although the “St. Crucis Mass” is not about a specific Saint, its name reflects the vital and the central point of focus for the Catholic Church – the Holy Cross. When examined as separate words, St. Crucis presents a deeper meaning. The Latin word for Saint (St.) is Sanctus, otherwise translated as “holy,” reflecting the sacred, consecrated, canonized or a set of descriptors recognized as good, kind, patient, of eminent piety and virtue. The definition for Crucis is cross, or crux meaning the most vital or decisive stage, a central difficulty, a crossroads of interpretation or a central point.

Scholars have not unearthed historical background for the “St. Crucis Mass,” aside from the assumption that its intended use was for worship and Rheinberger composed it in 1882 while he held the title of Bavarian court Kapellmeister (Munich). However, a possible commissioning came from a church in Germany by the same name, Saint Crucis, church of Erfurt. The size and architecture of this late Gothic building built around 1170 suggests the medieval importance of the nearby castle in Landsberg (Saalekreis). The double chapel was used for church government for the Bishop of Salain Hohenstaufen. The tapestries hung on the pillars and columns highlight a community of wealth and agricultural strength.  Alternately, Josef Rheinberger (c. 1839-1901) may have simply named the Mass for his own devotion to the Church and his convictions regarding the liturgical purpose of the Mass. A devout Catholic, Rheinberger was a member of the Caecilian Society, whose religious ideals advocated for a purity of the spirit in worship through a revival of interest in Gregorian chant. Rheinberger preferred an a capella ideal, which he considered to be “the special medium of the Church,” and drawing from 16th century fugal and canonic forms he alternated homophonic and contrapuntal techniques. Rheinberger, a strict conservative, looked to musical forms of previous centuries interspersed with a nineteenth harmonic language of traditional classical harmony and rich chromaticism. The legacy of his compositions lies in their simplicity, clarity, intricate contrapuntal harmony and soaring melodies without adhering to the overly dramatic overtures found in Wagner and Brahms. He earned a distinctive reputation as a conductor during his time as director of the German Oratorio Club (Oratorienverein) and Director of Sacred Music at the Bavarian Court. Now considered one of the great religious composers of the 19th century, his German Romantic peers largely overshadowed him in popularity for more than one hundred years. With a revival of his music in the late 20th century, scholars have discovered his long history as a harmony professor at the Royal School of Music in Munich, having taught such composers as Engelbert Humperdink, American George Chadwick and even acting as a mentor to Richard Strauss.

Hymn to St. Cecilia
Benjamin Britten  (St. Cecilia)
It is only befitting that tonight’s musical journey concludes by honoring the life and influence of St. Cecilia, the patron saint of music, who (as said in the text below) “appears in visions to all musicians” to “inspire.” Although St. Cecilia was not a musician, the tragically romantic story of her life dating from the third or fourth century says that Cecilia heard heavenly music when she was forced to marry a Pagan, Valerian. She told her husband that an angel watched over her to guard her purity, and when he wanted to see the angel, she told him he would only after his baptism by Pope Urban. After Valerian converted, Cecilia, her husband, and her brother undertook a mission of burying Christian martyrs killed by the Roman city officials. All three of them received a death sentence for their efforts, but Cecilia did not die after being struck by the executioner’s sword three times. Instead, she survived for three days while people came to her home to honor her. In the Middle Ages, her popularity as a saint flourished. Many songs, poems, stories, and compositions arose in her honor and several paintings of St. Cecilia emerged. Her feast day inspired a wealth of famous compositions bearing her name and spirit: Henry Percell’s “Ode to St. Cecilia,” George F. Handel’s “Ode for St. Cecilia’s Day,” Marc-Antoine Charpentier’s “In honorem Caeciliae,” Charles Gounod’s “Messe Solennelle de Sainte Cecile,” and tonight’s final work, Benjamin Britten’s “Hymn to St. Cecilia.”

Benjamin Britten was actually born on St. Cecilia’s feast day, November 22 (c. 1913 –1976). The poem “Hymn to St. Cecilia” written by a close friend, William H. Auden, is divided into three parts. The first section refers to the holy lady, St. Cecilia, as an innocent virgin, who constructs an organ to extend the power of her prayer. Auden likened her to Aphrodite, the Greek goddess of fertility, as she floated on a shell in the sea. The second section is the voice of music itself, carefree, innocent, playful, and joyful to all who partake of its aesthetic–for music cannot hurt or cause suffering. The third section deals with humankind offering prayers to St. Cecilia, calling upon her to help us overcome our sorrows and restore our lost innocence. Additionally, the third section offers St. Cecilia’s answer, in which she reproaches humans for overlooking sorrow, and being blind to the destruction they cause. The poem ends with hope, returning once again to artists beseeching St. Cecilia to continue inspiring musicians to create “immortal fire.” Keep in mind that this poem, written in the midst of World War II, holds meanings reflective of pre-war and wartime Europe. First, there is a happy time, joyful and blissfully unaware of pain, then a time of lost innocence and tremendous human suffering. Benjamin Britten, a leading 20th century composer, was an active pacifist, speaking out against the war-ridden Europe, who eventually gained status as a conscientious objector.


Noël À L’Ancienne: An Ancient French Christmas – Program Notes

Noel A L'Ancienne Final
Saturday, December 7th, 2013
7:30 p.m.
Christ Church of the Ascension
4015 E Lincoln Dr, Paradise Valley, AZ 85253
Ticketing: http://www.eventbrite.com/e/an-ancient-french-christmas-tickets-9206772705

1- O Come, O Come Emmanuel (Veni Emmanuel)- 8th Century French Chant                            Arranged by Kira Zeeman Rugen

This 8th century chant’s alluring melody stands out as one of the oldest of France’s Christmas melodies. Written by a priest who had a deep understanding of the bible, the Latin verses portray the full story of the birth of the Messiah, originally intended to be sung over the course of seven days, one verse per day. During the 15th Century, the chant appeared in the publication Psalteroium Cantionum Catholicarum intended as a processional in worship. Kira Rugen’s setting combines the familiar chant along side Medieval modal colors, 19th Century and 21st Century harmonies.  This carol, which has survived for over a century, is still beloved today.

2- Maria Matrem – Based on 4th Century Ambrosian Chant/14th Century Catalonian Chant
Arranged by Michael McGlynn

The original Maria Matrem Chant comes from a body of melodies collected by St. Ambrose of Milan between the 4th and 8th centuries. This collection eventually developed into the Ambrosian Rite, the only other Papal divinely accepted chant beyond the Gregorian Rite. A variation of Maria Matrem appeared in Medieval Catalonia (north-eastern Spain and Southern-France) in a collection entitled “Libre Vermell de Montserrat” (The Red Book of Montserrat) named after its red velvet cover. A center for learning and the home of the “Black Virgin” statue, Montserrat was a desirable location for large numbers of pilgrims. The pilgrims often expressed jubilation upon their arrival by singing and dancing in the church area around the shrine. Although the Monks of the Santa Maria de Montserrat Monastery appreciated and understood the pilgrim’s celebratory exultation, the monks felt much of the music was largely secular and unbefitting to such a holy place. Instead, the monks assembled a collection of music befitting to the revered shrine, with sacred texts. Most of the pieces in the book are actually secular melodies of the 14th Century, set with new religious texts. Irish composer and founder of Ireland’s National Choir, Anùna, discovered the melody from the Red Book of Montserrat and composed this setting for female voices.

3- Gaudete – From the 16th Century Piæ Cantiones Arr. by Kira Zeeman Rugen

The University of Paris (founded in 1170) and the Cathedral of Notre Dame occupied the center of Parisian musical activity during the middle ages. This influence infiltrated the development of music in Europe through polyphonic forms, melodic modes, rhythmic modes, composition, and theory. Ties between Nordic countries and Paris were strong. Scandinavian students often studied abroad in Paris and returned home with new melodies, Gaudete, perhaps being one of them.

In 1582, a collection of sacred and secular songs and chants from around northern Europe was published in Finland/Sweden. The full name, Piae Cantiones Ecclesiasticae et Scholasticae VeterumEepiscorporum (Devout Ecclesiastical and School Songs of the Old Bishops), is known in short as Piæ Cantiones.  This collection includes seventy-four Latin songs from Scandinavia and Central Europe, intended for instruction in Finnish Cathedral schools. Carols could be on any subject, but often they exhibited themes about the Virgin Mary or the Saints of Christmas. Gaudete, follows a standard pattern of that period: Four-line stanzas, each preceded by two-line refrain. The original polyphony displayed a three-voiced setting drawing upon one principle of improvisation known as fauxbourdon.

4- A Solis Ortus/Patapan- Traditional 5th Century Ambrosian Chant/Burgundian Carol

Arr. by Mike Hegeman

“I was drawn to these two melodies, even though one is free Latin (Ambrosian) plainchant and the other a rhythmic march-like dance, not only because they share the Dorian mode (though the Latin hymn ends in the Phrygian mode) and have frequent leaps of a fifth in the melodic line, but also because they counter each other well: one expresses a reverent stillness and the other a raucous celebration. The Middle Ages were alive with such contrasts of the other-worldly and the mundane. Piety and party come together well in the Christmas story that proclaims the union of the Divine and earthly; angelic choirs and shepherd bands arrive on a scene of wonder: the eternal Word made flesh, lying in a manger.”

“A Solis Ortus Cardine, a Latin hymn that was popular in France throughout the Middle Ages, dates from the early 5th century. This current setting uses only the opening stanza, of the original twenty-three, of a poem that celebrates the divine mysteries associated with the birth of Jesus. The hymn was translated by Martin Luther to German in 1524, as Christum wir sollen loben schon,and his setting exists today in Lutheran hymnals. Bach even used Luther’s translation and transcription as the basis of a cantata. Patapan was composed by Bernard de La Monnoye originally in the Burgundian dialect in 1720. Even though it was penned much later than the Middle Ages, it has the feel of a medieval dance and evokes a much more ancient scene. “

~Notes written by Composer, Mike Hegeman

5- Motet: Noel, Noel, Noel By Antoine Busnoys

This Flanders composer made his reputation as a master of melody and rhythm. However, this delicate piece draws from the simplest of melodic, harmonic and rhythmic resources while only uttering a single word.  The word “Noel,” or “Noe,” was an early French word that comes from the Latin word, Natalis, which means birth. However, at that time the word “Noel” was not always associated with Christmas. Instead, it was simply a Christian expression of joy, either shouted or sung.

In the middle ages, Christmas as we understand it did not exist and composers did not write songs specifically for the holiday. A song about Christ’s birth cropped for any time of year and occurred at several different feasts. The music for Epiphany, Easter and Christmas might sound the same, as there was not a defined set of carols connected to a single holiday. Instead, motets covering any topic popped up for any season.

6- Motet: Allon, Gay Bergeres By Guillaume Costeley

A prolific composer of Parisian Chanson, Costeley is recognized for his creative word painting and a forward way of thinking harmonically instead of polyphonically. He was the composer to King Charles IX of France as well as the organist of the court.

Historians believe Costeley’s text in this Christmas Chanson may refer to both the Christ child suckling his mother’s breast, as well as the long held French tradition called “King of the Bean.” In this ancient French ritual, usually held during Epiphany, a bean designated as “the King,” is baked inside a cake. While enjoying the cake, one person might find the lucky bean and must immediately take a drink. At that time, the entire party exclaims “The King Drinks!”  If the lucky “King” takes a drink, he is dubbed “King of the Feast”, but if he does not take a drink, he is covered in black soot. The tradition draws from the story of the Three Wise Men who meet the baby Jesus amidst suckling his mother. One of the Wise Men is thought to have said “The King Drinks!”

7 – Ding Dong Merrily on High Arr. by Charles Wood
French Renaissance Dance Melody

The dance tune, Branle de L’Official, appeared in the 1588 book Orchesographie, a 16th Century study of French dance forms, by Thoinot Arbeau—the anagrammatic pen name of French cleric Jehan Tabourot (March 17, 1519 – July 23, 1595). Written for the study of 16th Century French dances, it describes social ballroom behavior between musicians and dancers, gives detailed instructions of various dance forms, and even included various woodcuts of musicians and dancers. The dances highlighted in Branle de L’Official were intended primarily for the commoners’, however, it also found popularity within the aristocracy. In 1924, English composer George Ratcliffe Woodward set the tune to his own archaic-like text, and then Charles Wood harmonized the version for choir beloved today.

8 – Kanam Nouel Arr. by Kira Zeeman Rugen
Breton Carol based on a Renaissance Viol melody

The original melody of Kanamb Noël is based on an Air taken from a book for Renaissance viols. The carol settled as a familiar tune in the area of Brittan, France. This melody’s history tells that Breton children went from house to house singing this song as a part of their Christmas tradition. Kira Rugen’s polyphonic arrangement is based on a setting by Goulven Airault.

9 – Noel Nouvelet—15th Century French Carol Arr. by Victoria Larley

Noel Nouvelet’s tune originates from the late 15th Century, but its text may date from an earlier period. During the Middle Ages, clergy spoke the mass and scripture exclusively in Latin. As peasants were largely illiterate and spoke only a local language, they often acquired Christian knowledge primarily through the oral tradition of songs and plays. Noël Nouvelet may have begun as a play. The oldest lyrics reveal thirteen verses that tell the Christmas story of Mary, Joseph, the animals, angels and the Three Kings. As the text married with the tune, it is assumed the song was intended to teach children the elements of the Christmas Story, as the lyrics and melody are simple and sweet.

10 – Away in a Manger—Normandy Melody Arr. by Reginald Jacques

There are a number of tunes associated with the text “Away in a Manger.” Some sources claim it was an American melody, while others insist Martin Luther composed it. However, those claims may not be referencing the same melody. The tune of the song is not universal; as over forty different tunes have been placed alongside the lyrics in various hymnals. Richard S. Hill researched the origin of this carol and found that the text may have come from a poem read in 1883 for the 400th anniversary of Luther’s birth. The popular text found pairings with a plethora of melodies. The tune on tonight’s program hails from Normandy, located in Northern France. The melody came from older carol that was adapted to fit with the 19th century “Away in a Manger” text.

11 – Angels we Have Heard on High Arr. by Rev SS. Greathead
(Les Anges dans nos Campagnes)—Old French Carol

“Angels we Have Heard on High” is one of today’s best-loved holiday carols. However, one portion of the carol has been a part of Christian services since before the Roman Empire embraced Christianity. In 130 A.D., Pope Telesphorus mandated that on the day of Christ’s birth all churches would hold evening mass and the congregation should sing “Gloria in excelsis Deo” (Glory to God in the Highest).

The original version of the carol, Les Anges dans nos Campagnes, had its first publication in 1855, in the book Nouveau Recueil de Cantiques. However, church records show the song held popular appeal in mass worship services for at least fifty years preceding the first publication. Historians are unsure who originally penned the tune, however they suspect a Catholic monk or priest who had a scholarly understanding of the bible likely wrote it. The original text combined Latin and French making it Macronic, written with mixed languages.

12- The First Nowell—French/English Carol Arr. by Ola Gjeilo

Both England and France claim “The First Nowell,” or Noël, as originating from their own heritage—Thus the English spelling of “Nowell” and the French spelling of “Noël.” The origins of the tune and text continue to be a point of argument between the fair folk of each country, yet there is no evidence to prove it originated in one land or the other. The French word “Noël” means “Christmas,” and is derived from the Latin word Natalis meaning “Birth.” The French claim that their children often sang it as a round. While the English hold that the spelling “Nowell” originates in Cornwall and that after the Normans captured that part of England those living in the region adopted some French words.  Some historians say the tune may have originated as early as the 13th century, although the earliest printed versions from 16th Century hymnals use the spelling of “Nowell.”

The text in this carol lacks the scholarly language structure of other carols, which led many to speculate that a person with no formal written language training wrote it. The tune may come from an oral tradition of the common people, as the text is strongly associated with the tradition of lighting the Yule log. In the early 1800’s, an English Lawyer by the name of William Sandys published “The First Noel” in Christmas Carols, Ancient and Modern at a time when the Church of England added folk-like and popular tunes into worship. The version Solis Camerata sings on this program is a charming arrangement by contemporary Norwegian composer, Ola Gjeilo.

13 – Oh Come, All Ye Faithful Arr. by David Willcocks
Composed by French-English Catholic J.F. Wade (c. 1711–1786)

For many years, people believed St. Bonaventure penned Adeste Fideles in the middle ages. However, around the time of World War II, scholars discovered that it was actually written in 1745 by a British-Catholic Priest by the name John Francis Wade, who was teaching at a university in Douai, France. Wade lived during a time where it was not safe to practice Catholicism openly in England. Many Catholics fled to avoid prison and possible death. Wade collected sacred musical manuscripts for preservation as a part of his tasks at the university in France. As he unearthed old scores, he also found inspiration from the research and began composing his own music. He published the Latin song Adeste Fideles in a book entitled Cantus Diversi, and in 1841 Frederrick Oackeley translated the Latin into English and published the more familiar text “O Come All Ye Faithful.” However, Oackeley failed to include the name of the composer, thus causing the mystery as to the origins of the carol.

14 – Messe de Minuit pour Noël By Marc-Antoine Charpentier

Marc-Antoine Charpentier was a child of France, but had the compositional spirit of an Italian. Due to his studies in Rome with Giacomo Carissimi, Charpentier’s music always espoused a flair closer to the Italian liturgical style of his teacher than to contemporary French composers. His techniques ranged from Renaissance polyphony and Medieval fauxbordon, to counterpoint and the modern concertato style. A difference that marked Charpentier apart from his French peers was his approach to the Mass.

In the late 17th Century, King Louis XIV of France was not in favor of attending High Mass, preferring instead the Low Mass, in which the music comprised of Motets. Due to the King’s dislike of the Mass, very few Mass compositions exist from French composers after 1670. Charpentier is the exception as not only did he compose several Masses, but also he approached the Mass using the same musical language other French composers reserved exclusively for the Motet. He was adept at creating effects of mood by contrasting dark and light. Examples of this occur in Messe de Minuit Pour Noël’s Credo. The word Crucifixus (crucifix) and passus (suffered) are always set in a low, minor key. In opposition, the word resurrexit (resurrection) is painted in major, with joyful melismatic sections. Additionally, Charpentier always musically sets the words descendit and ascendit with downward or upward motion. Messe de Minuit pour Noël was likely written between 1692-1694 for use in the Christmas Midnight Mass of the main Jesuit church in Paris. This Midnight Mass is unique even for Charpentier, as he utilizes the then out of fashion parody technique, basing the composition on a pre-existing melody. Those melodies are the charming feature of the work as the carols came from large repertoire of songs dating from plainchant and folk noels to secular 16th Century Christmas melodies. There are a total of ten Noel melodies in the Mass, and a different carol forms the basis of new material for each new section of the text. The Mass is scored for two violins, two flutes, continuo, chorus and soloists. Within each section, solo, instrumental and choral forces alternate to create a pastiche of Renaissance polyphony juxtaposed against Baroque dances. The folk melodies bestow a pastoral atmosphere through the inclusion of the Baroque flute.

In this era, organists frequently interpolated short compositions between Mass movements during worship. Charpentier acknowledges this tradition by requesting insertion of the original form of three Noels, to illustrate the original melody against the interwoven melody. Those three melodies sound during the Kyrie movement in-between sections of new text: Joseph est Bien Marie, “Or Nous Dites Marie” and “Une Jeune Pucelle.” In addition to the carols that Charpentier suggest for inclusion, tonight we will present three chants routinely sung for Christmas Midnight Mass. The Introit Dominus Dixit before the Kyrie, the Offertory Laetenture Caeli before the Sanctus, and for Communion, In Splendoribus Sanctorum after the Agnus Dei. Messe de Minuit pour Noël‘s charm and simplicity helped retain its survival over four centuries. This work captures a joyous and festive spirit due to the folk-like carols, while maintaining the liturgical function of the Mass. It is this synthesis of the secular and liturgical that creates a celebratory and reminiscent atmosphere, which lends itself to the advent season.

A Shakespearean Tragedy of the Heart

A Shakespearian Tragedy of the Heart

Sung by the members of Solis Camerata

William Shakespeare
William Shakespeare

Next week Solis Camerata performs our first concert of the spring semester. I’ve really enjoyed creating a Shakespeare program, but an intriguing manifestation occurred through the study of these texts.  It became more than just a program of choral music. Instead, a gripping and heartbreaking story developed. This classic ‘Shakespearean tragedy’ of lost love also features gorgeous choral music by both modern composers, and from the bard’s time.

(Read the descriptions under the pictures below to decipher the plot. Modern English translations included through a link on the title of each song).

ASU Choral Concert “Songs of Love”  February 26, 2012, 7:30 p.m. Valley Presbyterian Church 6947 E. McDonald Drive Paradise Valley, AZ
Tickets are sold at the door only. $5 for general admission and $2 for students with valid student ID.

“Ah Robin” round by William Cornish (d. 1523)

Twelfth Night 4.2
Soloists: Margaux Fox, Rebecca Woodbury, Mariana Barboza
The Fate of love. Some love is beautiful and lasting. Yet, be warned, some love is cruel and sorrowful.
Prologue: The Fate of love. Some love is beautiful and lasting. Yet, be warned, some love is cruel and sorrowful.
*Refrain: Ah, Robin, gentle Robin,

Tell me how thy leman doth and thou shalt know of mine 
Singer 1: My lady is unkind, perdie, Iwis, alack, why is she so?
She lov’th another better than me and yet she will say no.*
Singer 2: I cannot think such doubleness for I find women true:
My lady loveth me doubtless and will change for no new.*
Singer 1: Thou are happy while that doth last but I say as I find,
That women’s love is but a blast and turneth like the wind.* 

“Three Merry Men” – anon

Found in the John Playford Manuscript (ca. 1623 – 1686)
Twelfth Night 2.3
Soloists: Eric Chapman, Noah Brown, and Caleb Boyd
Three men roam in the forest, relaxing and enjoying life.
Three men roam in the forest, relaxing and enjoying life.
Three merry men, and three merry men
And three merry men be we.
I in the wood, and thou on the ground,
and Jack sleeps in the tree.

Romeo and Juliette 1.5

Spoken by Noah Brown
Suddenly one man spies a marvel… A beautiful woman! He calls out to her.
Suddenly one man spies a marvel… A beautiful woman! He calls out to her.
Did my heart love ’til now?
Forswear it, sight!
For I ne’er saw true beauty
’til this night!

“Where the Bee Sucks” Robert Johnson (ca. 1583-1633)

The Tempest 5.1
Soloist: Joyce Yin
Dancers: Noah Brown, Elizabeth Lee
The young lady flirts with this handsome young man and finds herself intrigued.
The young lady flirts with this handsome young man and finds herself intrigued.
Where the Bee sucks, there suck I,
In a Cowslip’s bell, I lie,
There I couch when Owls do cry,
On the Bat’s back I do fly, after Summer merrily.
Merrily, Merrily, shall I live now,
Under the blossom that hangs on the Bough.

“It Was a Lover and his Lass”  by Thomas Morley (ca. 1557-1602)

As You Like It 5.3
The happy couple fall in love and plan to marry.
The happy couple fall in love and plan to marry.
It was a lover and his lass
with a hey, and a ho and a hey nonny no.
That o’er the green corn fields did pass
In Spring time, the only pretty ring time.
When birds do sing Hey ring a ding a ding.
Sweet lovers love the spring. 
This carol they began that hour
with a hey, and a ho and a hey nonny no.
How that a life was but a flower
In Spring time, the only pretty ring time.
When birds do sing Hey ring a ding a ding.
Sweet lovers love the spring.

“Fancy Bred” by Elliot Sneider (b. 1977)

(Arizona State University DMA Composition TA)
The Merchant of Venice 3.2
Soloists: Sarah Moore, and J.D. Lawson
However, she doubts and questions her love for him:
However, she doubts and questions her love for him.
Tell me where is fancy bred?
How begot how nourished?
Or in the heart
Or in the head?
It is engendered in the eyes.
And fancy dies in the cradle where it lies
Let us all ring fancy’s knell
I’ll begin it. Ding Dong Bell

“Take, O Take Those Lips Away” by Emma Lou Diemer (b. 1927)

Measure by Measure 4.1
Pianist: Elliot Sneider
In remorse and sadness, he laments about the loss of her promised love, and the loss of her sweet kisses.
In remorse and sadness, he laments the loss of her promised love, and the loss of her sweet kisses.
Take, O Take those lips away
That so sweetly were forsworn
And those eyes, the break of day
Lights that do mislead the morn
But my kisses bring again,
Seals of love, but seal’d in vain.

“Farewell Dear Heart” by Robert Jones (ca. 1577 – 1617)

Twelfth Night 2.3
Soloists: Elizabeth Lee, Brina Gerstenberger, and Noah Brown
She asks a friend for advice, unsure if she desires to stay with him, or leave.
She asks a friend for advice, unsure if she desires to stay with him or leave.
 *Girl:  Farewell dear heart,
Since I must needs be gone,
*Friend: His eyes do show his days are almost done,
*Boy: But I will never die.
*Friend: Yet Sir Toby, there you lie.
*Girl: Shall I bid him go?
*Friend: What an if you do?
*Girl: Shall I bid him go, and spare not?
*Friend: O no, no, no ,no you dare not.

“O Mistress Mine” by Matthew Harris (b. 1956)

Twelfth Night 2.3
Soloist: Noah Brown
He spins a persuasive and heart-felt narrative, trying to convince her to stay and give their love a second chance.
He spins a persuasive and heart-felt narrative,
trying to convince her to stay and give their love a second chance.
O Mistress Mine where are you roaming?
O, stay and hear, your true love is coming,
That can sing both high and low.
Trip no further, pretty sweeting,
Journeys end in lovers meeting
Every wise man’s son doth know.
What is love? Tis not herafter.
Present mirth hath present laughter,
What’s to come is still unsure.
In delay there lies no plenty,
Then come kiss me, sweet and twenty,
Youth’s a stuff will not endure.

“Loath to Depart” anon

Found in Ravenscroft’s Deuteromelia 1609
Soloists: Elizabeth Lee, Brina Gerstenberger, Rebecca Schmidt, Alexa Valencia
Nevertheless, she insists on parting despite her distaste of farewells.
Nevertheless, she insists on parting despite her distaste of farewells.
However, she justifies that their courtship was only a friendship that could not last.
She justifies that their courtship was only a friendship that could not last.
Sing with thy mouth,
Sing with thy heart,
Like faithful friends,
Sing loath to depart.
Though friends together
may not always remain
Yet loath to depart,
Sing Once again.

“Come Away Death” by Ralph Vaughn Williams (ca. 1872-1958)

From Twelfth Night 2.4

This tragic tale ends with his unrequited love.
This tragic tale ends with his unrequited love.
He mourns the loss of his love, equating it to death.
He mourns the loss of his sweet love, equating it to death.
Come away death
And in sad cypress let me be laid.
Fly away breath.
I am slain by a fair cruel maid.
My shroud of white,
stuck all with yew, o prepare it!
My part of death
no one so true did share it.
Not a flower sweet,
On my black coffin let there be strown
Not a friend great,
My poor corse, where my bones shall be thrown.
A thousand sighs to save, Lay me
O, where sad true lover never find my grave,
To weep there!